María


Toda una vida – Online Spanish Tutor – Intermediate (Podcast 6)

 

 

 

Toda una vida – 6

 

 

In this podcast you will learn how to talk about the past, past experiences and recount stories in the past. I will show you how and when we use the different tenses and you will learn numerous vocabulary and expressions.

If you want to exploit at most this audio, get the worksheet available where you’ll find the grammar point, vocabulary and expressions that appear in this audio and some exercises to practice your Spanish.

You can download the podcast here.


Talk about the past in Spanish (I): Pretérito Perfecto de Indicativo (Present Perfect) 5

To talk about past experiences in an undefined time in the past, whether we don’t know exactly “when”, or just because it’s not important, we use the “Pretérito Perfecto de Indicativo” (Present Perfect).

  • Formation

The Pretérito Perfecto is formed in the same way as English, with the verb “haber” (is the auxiliar verb, like “to have” in English) and the participle. The auxiliary verb is conjugated for the subject of the sentece:

Example:

Pedro ha pagado las facturas.
Pedro has paid the bills. 

Ellas no han ido de vacaciones todavía.
They haven’t gone on holidays yet.

The participle is formed by dropping the infinitive ending and adding either -ado or -ido. The participle is invariable, it doesn’t change. We can’t put anything between the auxiliar verb and the participle:

Example:

Yo ya he aprendido a contar en alemán. And not: Yo he ya aprendido a contar en alemán.
I have already learn to count in german.

  • Uses:

1) The pretérito perfecto is frequently used for past actions that continue into the present or continue to affect in the present.

Examples:

Mis amigos y yo hemos ido al cine esta semana a ver la última película de George Clooney.
My friend and I, we have gone to the cinema this week to watch the last movie of George Clooney.

He perdido las llaves y no puedo entrar en casa.
I have lost my keys and I can’t get into the house.

2) The pretérito perfecto is used sometimes with frequency expressions, like: todavía no, aún no, ya, una vez, dos veces, muchas veces, pocas veces…

Example:

Mi novio ha venido a visitarme a Córcega muchas veces.
My boyfriend has come to visit me in Corsica a lot of times.

Todavía no he aprendido a comunicarme en árabe con mis amigos marroquís, tengo que practicar más.
I haven’t learnt yet to communicate in Arabic with my Morocan friends, I have to practice more.

 


Rutinas – Online Spanish Tutor – Beginners (Podcast 5)

 

Rutinas – 5

 

 

In this podcast we will go through a short description of daily routines, and vocabulary related with timetables, frequency and Spanish food.

If you want to exploit at most this audio, get the worksheet available where you’ll find the grammar point, vocabulary and expressions that appear in this audio and some exercises to practice your Spanish.

You can download the podcast here.


Estados de ánimo – Online Spanish Tutor – Beginner (Podcast 4)

 

Estados de ánimo – 4

 

 

In  today’s podcast you will learn how to express moods and states of mind.

If you want to exploit at most this audio, get the worksheet available where you’ll find the grammar point, vocabulary and expressions that appear in this audio and some exercises to practice your Spanish.

You can download the podcast here.


Un nuevo idioma – Online Spanish Tutor – Beginners (Podcast 3)

 

Un nuevo idioma – 3

 

In today’s post you will hear four spanish speakers sharing their techniques to improve the learning of a foreign language and their strategies to communicate better in a foreign language.

If you want to exploit at most this audio, get the worksheet available where you’ll find the grammar point, vocabulary and expressions that appear in this audio and some exercises to practice your Spanish.

You can download the podcast here.


The gender and number of nouns 1

  • GENRE: masculine – feminine

All the nouns in Spanish have genre, they are masculine or feminine. There are few rules that help us to decide what is the genre of the noun:

– In general, all nouns that end in: -o, -ón and -r are masculine.

el perro – the dog                         el teclado – the keyboard

el libro – the book                        el cuaderno – the notebook

– In general, all nouns that end in -a, -ción, -sión, -dad, -tad are feminine.

la rata – the rat                             la casa – the house

la canción – the song                  la motivación – the motivation

la verdad – the truth                   la piedad – the mercy

la libertad – the liberty              la amistadthe friendship

But there are a lot of exceptions:

el mapa – the map

la mano – the hand

el problema – the problem

– The nouns that end in -e or in other consonants can be masculine or feminine.

la nube – the cloud                       el hombre – the man

el árbol – the tree                          la miel – the honey

– The nouns that end in -ista can be masculine and feminine (because they are professions)

el, la periodista – the journalist 

el, la masajista – the masseur

  • Masculine to Feminine: In order to change a masculine word into a feminine one, for the professions for instance, we have this 3 rules:

1. The words that end in -o change the “o” into an “a”

el fotógrafo > la fotógrafa the photographer

el panadero > la panaderathe baker

2. The words that end in consonant add an “a”

el profesor > la profesora the teacher

el boxeador > la boxeadorathe boxer

el escritor > la escritorathe writer

3. The words that end in “e”:

3.1 don’t change

el cantante > la cantante the singer

el estudiante > la estudiantethe student

3.2 change the “e” for an “a”

el dependiente > la dependienta the shop assistant

– There are nouns that have a word for masculine and another for feminine:

el padre / la madre – the father / the mother

el toro / la vaca – the bull / the cow

el gallo / la gallina – the rooster / the hen

  • NUMBER: singular – plural

There are two rules to transform a singular noun into plural:

1. Add an “s”

el perro > los perros

la casa > las casas

2. Add “es” with the words that end in consonant.

el profesor > los profesores

la canción > las canciones

2.1 When the word end in “z” it changes to “c” and add “es”

el pez > los peces

 

Finally, if you want to practice your listening skills, here I leave you with a video class about this topic in Spanish with subtitles in Spanish.